Handbook of Research on Strategic Management in Small and Medium Enterprises

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Tình trạng: Sẵn sàng
Miễn Phí

Kiril Todorov, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria, David Smallbone, Kingston University, UK (2014)

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PREFACE

It is widely accepted that the management and particularly strategic management of SMEs is quite different from that of large enterprises. Because it is obvious that small business is not a small copy of a large company and has its own inherent specific characteristics, particularly its generally local orientation and isolation, shortage of resources and of course the combination of ownership and management function in one person – the entrepreneur. All this results in a specific approach to strategic management, its largely informal character, embodying above all the personal characteristics of entrepreneur, his experience, creativity, intuition, and improvisational opportunities, particularly in a dynamic, heterogeneous business environment. Globalization of the economy, the “death of distance,” thanks to the development of ICT, increasing heterogeneity and dynamics of the business environment, increasing importance of managing cultural differences determines the new challenges to strategic management in SMEs. If 20 years ago the global behavior of small firms was rather an exception today, participation of these firms in the global division of labor is tangibly felt. “Think globally and act locally” is not a slogan but a necessity. This gives rise even to the term “glocalization.” Today, the speed and flexibility (“fast eat the slow”) are essential tools for SMEs in the global competitive environment. Now, it is normal for a proactive entrepreneur of a small company for air conditioners (45 people) to fly to China to buy the skeleton and air conditioning mechanics and electronics from France or Spain to use in her workshop for air conditioners in Bulgaria. Thus, the air conditioner “Star Way” assembled in her firm and sold at a competitive price is an example of the global division of labor, the blurring of boundaries, and material recognition of the strategic approach of the global entrepreneur, albeit one of a smaller firm. Increasing the “born global” firms, without passing gradual stages of internationalization, shows where today business trends are going. All this opens up new challenges to the strategic management of SMEs and the strategic behavior of entrepreneurs and firms. In recent years, we have witnessed a rethinking of the “classic” (casual) current strategic concepts and the search for new, not only to describe but also to prescribe the behavior of SMEs in today’s dynamic, with increasing heterogeneity, global multicultural business environment. The procedures of the classic strategic management are subject of a critical analysis, which, albeit with different nuances in “strategic schools,” has determining common features: setting stable targets, conducting strategic choice, and providing the resources necessary to achieve them. This causation approach erodes when used in a dynamic and uncertain environment, particularly in the specific case of SMEs. Therefore, researchers such as S. Sarasvathy (2008) launched the so-called effectuation approach, which suggests more explorer behavior (i.e. mindset modification depending on the circumstances) and achieving the adoptive objectives with available resources. Moreover, a number of authors launched the idea of the bricolage approach with emphasis on the recombination of resources to achieve desired possible (changeable) goals. Therefore, the need to combine the famous advantages of strategic management (more oriented to exploitation) with proactive, entrepreneurial behavior oriented more to exploration comes to the forefront. After launching the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE), some distinguished authors continue to discuss hot topics in search of working strategic approaches for SMEs. Nowadays, entrepreneurship activity in the global dynamic, multicultural business environment requires conceptual solutions and rethought best practices in various contexts: political, geographic, economic, socio-cultural, religious, and psychological. That is why this book, synthesizing various theories, concepts, discussions, constructive critical analysis, and good practice intend to help extant researchers and active entrepreneurs, managers, and other stakeholders. In preparing this book, we had in mind:
• The heterogeneity of entrepreneurial activity in various economic and socio-cultural contexts and, hence large differences in knowledge, skills, experiences, values, and especially, entrepreneurial behaviors and practice.
• Heterogeneous SMEs in terms of size, stage of life cycle, sectoral affiliation, and specific characteristics, which affects their behavior and need for support.
• The leading role of the entrepreneur in smaller enterprises, based on personal and behavioral characteristics and specific roles, such as coordinator of resources, operator, leader, and strategist in particular.
• International dimensions of entrepreneurship and SMEs, particularly in the, implementation of strategic actions in different political, geographical, economic, and socio-cultural contexts. Here not only do external conditions produce challenges but they also provide opportunities for the application of scientific achievements in the field and relevant practice and/or opportunities for adapting foreign practices.
• A diverse audience with different backgrounds and perceptions. For all these reasons, we have adopted an indirect approach to the representation of strategic management in SMEs from different perspectives, different practices, and different settings. In this context, the book is divided into five interrelated sections, as follows: The first section “Foundations of Strategic Management in SMEs,” covers the basic aspects, problems, and possible solutions in the strategic management of SMEs. The section begins with an introductory chapter on the Strategic Orientation (SO) of SMEs as a field of purposeful research in recent years and
illustrates how SO is combined with marketing and innovative orientation. It is focused largely on strategic management and the complex relationship between strategic management and strategic orientation. It is analyzed how inductive and exploratory research within SME research allows for developing deep and more meaningful insights as to how firms orient and navigate in competitive challenging environments. It requires new research to generate knowledge and skills and experience for the specific needs of SMEs, to assist them in implementing strategic behavior in different situations. The second chapter discusses adequate concepts for Strategic Management (SM) in SMEs in the global economy and their relevance for the competitive behavior of those enterprises, helping entrepreneurs/managers of SMEs on how to and at developing a typology of transfer constellations. Based on theoretical analysis and empirical research, the authors established a framework for the deviation of context-based knowledge strategies within family SMEs. In the third chapter, internal non-family succession was explored and used as a case of smaller company to shed light on how the firm is preparing for this type of succession. With regard to succession preparation, insights into the aspects of successor selection, successor training, and employeeNinvolvement in the succession process and performance measurement systems are provided. Despite the small example for illustration, the authors believe it is important to present in a clear way the succession process in non-family firm. The fourth chapter is devoted to strategic management in sports business and shows that a democratic approach is a desired style of work, but not for everyone and every company. It requires certain conditions for application, obtaining specific expertise and willingness of managers, especially in making strategic decisions. Formulation, implementation, and continuous evaluation are adequate in serving as a broad guide to the strategic management process of sport organizations and can be refined by sport managers to meet the varyingmissions across sport organizations.

The book concludes with the fifth section, “Strategic Management of SMEs in Different Contexts (Specifics, Problems, Good Practices),” presenting different views and practices of SM in different countries and continents. The first chapter examines the key role of the Mittelstand (medium-sized) companies as the backbone of the German economy, working in 174 countries. The formal approach in big corporations in strategic management does not really work in the very owner-centric environment of a Mittelstand company. The owners of Mittelstand companies seem to act more intuitive and are more intrinsically motivated than their counterparts in big corporations. The question now is what do Mittelstand companies have in common in their strategic management, which can be generalized? Chapter two analyzes some aspects of strategic management in Italian SMEs, focusing on Management Control Systems (MCS). Although Italy is often seen as a textbook example of successful development of entrepreneurship and SMEs, they are not without their problems. The issue in this chapter is the gap between the strategic management requirements of SMEs and the available MCS. The third chapter deals with the main elements of social capital of SMEs and expressed strategic management through participation in various forms of business (entrepreneurial) networks using examples of Bulgarian SMEs. Participation in such networks allows access to information and resources for solving strategic tasks impossible for the isolated firm. On the other hand, intensive collaboration and networking creates problems and challenges of SMEs and places new requirements to their strategic management. The aim of the fourth chapter is to offer an alternative to the emigration and marginalization currently experienced by indigenous Latin American communities by creating ecotourism ventures in their home territories. This is an introductory work and the preliminary findings highlight the importance not only of social networks in the creation of indigenous SMEs but also of the culture, values, uses, and customs of such communities in the identification of the profile of the indigenous entrepreneur. The authors of the last chapter discuss the challenges of ERP system implementation in Arab SMEs by introducing the main studies conducted in the area. Their intent is to provide readers with a theoretical framework linking business managers’ skills and interaction between business managers and IT managers to ERP strategic alignment as main chosen variables. This framework was tested in previous research conducted in the Tunisian context and retested for this study in a Saudi context. Within this context, the authors hope the chapter can be helpful for researchers in ERP strategic alignment, mainly for students and professors in their academic activities.

In brief, this book includes a wide variety of approaches, problems, and discussions in the field done by the contributors. It provides a color and fresh look at some difficult concepts and a field that is difficult to unify. Alongside the established theories and concepts, the reader will encounter a number of issues for discussion promoted and defended by different contributors from many countries. This book is aimed at a wide audience of potential readers, including students, teachers, researchers, entrepreneurs, managers, and policy makers. The editors believe that the book will provide an opportunity to learn about new ideas and methods of strategic management of SMEs in a global cross-cultural context.

 

CONTENTS

Preface................................................................................................................................xxii

Acknowledment..............................................................................................................xxviii

Section 110.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs01

Foundations of Strategic Management in SMEs10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs01

Chapter 110.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch001

Strategic Management in SMEs: An Orientation Approach....................................................................110.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch001

Rosalind Jones, University of Birmingham, UK10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch001::1

Susan Sisay, Glyndwr University, UK10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch001::2

Chapter 210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch002

Strategic Management Overview and SME in Globalized World.........................................................2210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch002

Neeta Baporikar, Sultanate of Oman Ministry of Higher Education, CAS-Salalah, Oman10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch002::1

Chapter 310.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003

Environmental Scanning – An Information System Framework for Strategic Decisions in SMEs: .

A Case Study Analysis..........................................................................................................................4010.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003

Ho Yin Wong, Deakin University, Australia10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003::1

Parves Sultan, Central Queensland University, Australia10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003::2

Jason Kokho Sit, Bournemouth University, UK10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003::3

En Li, Central Queensland University, Australia10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003::4

Jia-Yi Hung, Tzu Chi College of Technology, Taiwan10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch003::5

Chapter 410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch004

Strategic Learning for Agile Maneuvering in High Technology SMEs................................................5510.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch004

Charlotta A. Sirén, University of Vaasa, Finland & Luleå University of Technology, Sweden10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch004::1

Marko Kohtamäki, University of Vaasa, Finland & Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

Chapter 510.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch005

Strategic Asset Building and Competitive Strategies for SMEs which Compete .

with Industry Giants..............................................................................................................................7710.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch005

Carmine Bianchi, University of Palermo, Italy10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch005::1

Graham W. Winch, University of Plymouth, UK10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch005::2

Federico Cosenz, University of Palermo, Italy10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch005::3

Section 210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs02

The Entrepreneur/Manager as Strategist, Leader, and Improviser10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs02

Chapter 610.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch006

The Entrepreneur as Strategist and Improviser: Subject of Activity and Object of Understanding......9810.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch006

Kiril Todorov, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch006::1

Chapter 710.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch007

The Entrepreneurial Manager: Challenges in Forming Key Competencies........................................12410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch007

Kostadin Kolarov, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch007::1

Chapter 810.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch008

SMEs’ Leaders: Building Collective Cognition and Competences to Trigger Positive Strategic

Outcomes............................................................................................................................................14310.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch008

Renaud Redien-Collot, Novancia Business School, France10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch008::1

Miruna Radu Lefebvre, Audencia School of Management, France10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch008::2

Section 310.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs03

Strategic Management in SMEs by Stage of Development10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs03

Chapter 910.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch009

Becoming Strategic in Small Businesses.............................................................................................16010.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch009

Colleen E. Mills, University of Canterbury, New Zealand10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch009::1

Chapter 1010.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch010

Strategic Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small Business Growth.....................................................18010.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch010

João J. Ferreira, University of Beira Interior (UBI), Portugal & NECE - Research Unit

in Business Sciences, Portugal10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch010::1

Mário L. Raposo, University of Beira Interior (UBI), Portugal & NECE - Research Unit

in Business Sciences, Portugal10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch010::2

Cristina I. Fernandes, NECE - Research Unit in Business Sciences, UBI, Portugal10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch010::3

Chapter 1110.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch011

Towards a New Model of SMEs’ Internationalization........................................................................20410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch011

Valentina Della Corte, University Federico II of Naples, Italy10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch011::1

Section 410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs04

Strategic Management at Different Types (Subgroups) of SMEs10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs04

Chapter 1210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch012

Strategic Management of Family SMEs: Experience from Belgium..................................................24410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch012

Wouter Broekaert, KU Leuven, Campus Brussels, Belgium10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch012::1

Jan Degadt, KU Leuven, Campus Brussels, Belgium10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch012::2

Johan Lambrecht, KU Leuven, Campus Brussels, Belgium10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch012::3

Chapter 1310.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch013

Knowledge Transfer Strategies within Family Firm Succession.........................................................26610.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch013

Isabella Hatak, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria

& Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch013::1

Dietmar Roessl, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch013::2

Chapter 1410.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch014

Strategic Aspects of Non-Family SMEs Succession...........................................................................28210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch014

Susanne Durst, University of Liechtenstein, Principality of Liechtenstein10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch014::1

Simon Katzenschlager, University of Liechtenstein, Principality of Liechtenstein10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch014::2

Chapter 1510.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch015

A Democratic Approach to Strategic Management in Sport Organizations........................................30510.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch015

Robert C. Schneider, The College at Brockport, SUNY, USA10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch015::1

Section 510.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs05

Strategic Management of SMEs in Different Contexts (Specifics, Problems, Good Practices)10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.chs05

Chapter 1610.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch016

Strategic Management in German Mittelstand Companies.................................................................32810.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch016

Helmut Kohlert, Esslingen University of Applied Sciences, Germany10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch016::1

Chapter 1710.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch017

Relevance and Usage of Management Control Systems with Reference to Strategy Formulation and

Control: Evidence from Italian SMEs..................................................................................................34910.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch017

Selena Aureli, University of Bologna, Italy10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch017::1

Chapter 1810.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch018

Strategic Networking Behavior of SMEs: Practical Considerations from Bulgaria............................37210.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch018

Maria Vasilska, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch018::1

Iliya Kereziev, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria10.4018/978-1-4666-5962-9.ch018::2

Yordanka Ivanova, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria

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