This international text is aimed at being the textbook of choice for three important sets of readers:
● Students studying strategy and/or marketing (probably in their final undergraduate year or postgraduate) as part of their studies in tourism, hospitality and events management.
● Students and researchers who have chosen to study tourism, hospitality or events management organizations for their dissertation, projects or assignments, who want to understand the unique characteristics of the industry and to gain knowledge of the relevant literature.
● Managers and practitioners working in tourism, hospitality and events (or seeking a career in these sectors), who want to gain an understanding of the challenges faced by managers and some of the managerial responses which can be considered.
Putting aside definitional debates, fundamentally:
● strategy is about making you think ahead regarding key issues affecting organizations;and
● strategic management is about giving you concepts, frameworks, tools and techniques to help you do so.
Consequently this book aims to make readers think ahead about the key issues facing tourism, hospitality and events management organizations and provides concepts, frameworks, tools and techniques to help you do so. The first edition of this book was published as Strategic Management for Travel and Tourism in 2003 (for which I thank my two co-authors Professors David Campbell and George Stonehouse).
This text builds on the first edition, but much has changed in the intervening years and consequently this edition is completely modified and its scope extended. The text is global in its orientation and explicitly encompasses hospitality and events along with tourism recognizing the inextricably linked nature of these sectors. The text is contemporary in that the broad range of academic literature which has emerged in recent years is incorporated as are recent industry developments.
The book contextualizes and applies relevant material from the strategic management and
tourism, hospitality and events management literature and takes an international approach to what are inherently internationally oriented industry sectors. This approach is reflected in:
● the application of concepts and principles;
● links to a wide range of relevant literature enabling further study;
● a particular focus on smaller organizations (SMEs) recognizing that they form an important part of these sectors;
● taking an explicitly international approach for what are inherently internationally oriented sectors;
● emphasis of key points affecting this industry in particular; and
● use of short illustrative examples and a series of longer cases drawn from across the industry and focusing on different parts of the world.
There are of course many existing strategic management titles. There are, however comparatively few textbooks which apply strategy to ‘services’ contexts and in particular to the service sectors of tourism, hospitality and events. These service sectors are inextricably linked and have grown to represent one of the world’s most important industries.
The strategic management challenges facing managers in service contexts are often different in a number of ways from the challenges facing managers in manufacturing industries. These different challenges reflect the characteristics of services. Furthermore, tourism, hospitality and events represent a distinctive set of services which entail an understanding of their own specific characteristics. Hence it is appropriate that a dedicated text should consider the strategic implications of managing in this important and rapidly developing industry (which is one of the world’s largest), in particular.
Clearly there are many examples to illustrate a text such as this, and I have chosen those which: I consider to be relevant, can gain access to information, can link with the academic material or have personal experience. However, I recognize that other illustrations could have been chosen. I would like to encourage readers to submit further contributions and illustrations, which would be fully attributed if they were to appear on the companion website which supports this book and contains further material. Any feedback on this edition would also be gratefully received.
Finally, I would like to thank colleagues at Teesside University and elsewhere who have com-mented on parts of this book and the publishers for all their help and support throughout the book’s production.
Nigel G. Evans
List of figures ix
List of tables xiii
Study guide xix
Part 1 Strategy and the tourism, hospitality and events contexts 1
1. Strategy and strategic objectives for tourism, hospitality and event organizations 12
2. Introduction to strategy for tourism, hospitality and events 41
Part 2 Analysing the internal environment 73
3. Tourism, hospitality and event organizations: the operational context:
competencies, resources and competitive advantage 76
4. Tourism, hospitality and event organizations: the human resources context 109
5. Tourism, hospitality and event organizations: the financial context 148
6. Tourism, hospitality and event organizations: the products and markets context 190
Part 3 Analysing the external environment and SWOT 239
7. The external environment for tourism, hospitality and event organizations:
the macro context 242
8. The external environment for tourism, hospitality and event organizations:
the micro context 262
9. SWOT analysis for tourism, hospitality and event organizations 304
Part 4 Strategic selection 317
10. Competitive strategy and strategic direction for tourism, hospitality and event
11. Strategic methods for tourism, hospitality and event organizations 377
12. Strategic evaluation and selection for tourism, hospitality and event organizations 433
Part 5 Strategic implementation and strategy in theory and practice 469
13. Strategic implementation for tourism, hospitality and events 472
14. International and global strategies for tourism, hospitality and events 520
15. Strategy and tourism, hospitality and event organizations: theory and practice 563
Part 6 Case analysis for tourism, hospitality and events 5 81
Case 1 Strategic alliances in the airline industry 588
Case 2 Tourism Queensland: strategic positioning and promotion 601
Case 3 Ryanair: evolution of competitive strategy 619
Case 4 Hyatt Hotels: a family firm goes for growth 623
Case 5 Days Inn: franchising hospitality assets in China 640
Case 6 Reed Exhibitions: the world’s leading events organizer 651
Case 7 Thomas Cook: turnaround for a historic travel brand 666