STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: H. Igor Ansoff

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Tình trạng: Sẵn sàng
Miễn Phí

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

H. Igor Ansoff (2007)

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PREFACE

 1 THE FATHER OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Symbolically enough, it was on the commemoration day of the French Revolution, July 14, 2002, that Dr Igor Ansoff, who had made revolutionary contributions to the two major disciplines of corporate strategy and strategic management, passed away at the age of eighty-three. Firstly, he is well known as the author of the pioneering and best-selling book, Corporate Strategy, published originally in 1965.1 Secondly, the original publication, in 1979, of another groundbreaking masterpiece, Strategic Management, has led to him being highly acclaimed as ‘the father of strategic management’ throughout the world.

2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF DR IGOR ANSOFF’S WORKS
As shown in Figure F.1, the development of Dr Ansoff’s works, which may be safely called ‘monumental’ ones, can be identified by the horizontal and vertical flows. The first flow is a horizontal one in terms of the scope of disciplines concerned: from corporate strategy/strategic planning to strategic management. It may be worthwhile for readers to know at the moment that the former is incorporated into the latter as one of its constituent elements. The second flow is a vertical one in terms of the orientation or 
emphasis of contents: from the orientation of highly sophistic- ated and enriching concepts to the emphasis on application toN actual business practices. I also offer readers a panoramic view of the ‘Ansoff Mountains’ as a metaphorical expression of Dr Ansoff’s monumental works,
as shown in Figure F.2.

3 PROFESSOR DAVID HUSSEY’S CONTRIBUTION
When we try to discuss Dr Ansoff’s remarkable contributions to the discipline of strategic management, it is essential for us to refer to Professor David Hussey’s article, ‘Dr Ansoff’s Continuing Contribution to Strategic Management’.2 It is characterized by his in-depth understanding of Dr Ansoff’s professional works and personality. To the best of my knowledge, there is no literature which provides a better bird’s-eye view of his pioneering works or a more relevant positioning of them in the whole context of business management than this article. Thus, I will try to limit myself to referring only to three points which Hussey has not discussed in his article.

4 THE THREE SALIENT FEATURES OF DR ANSOFF’S APPROACH IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

Three salient features of Dr Ansoff’s approach in Strategic Manage- ment can be identified in contemporary viewpoints:

1. A far-reaching and more global European view. His natural endowment coupled with his practical and academic experi- ences in Europe and the United States had allowed Dr Ansoff to develop a globally universal view or, to be more specific, a far-reaching and more global European view as opposed to a myopic and parochial, purely American, one. Hussey has elaborated this point from a different perspective in his article.
2. A hypothesis-verification approach. Dr Ansoff’s basic attitude in this book is characterized by a hypothesis-verification 
approach which has been underpinned by his multidisciplinary approach to be described below. Hypotheses presented there, by definition, require verification of business realities during the last two and a half decades and, today, in the following two respects. Firstly, as illustrated in Figure F.1, his conceptual framework originated in Strategic Management and it has been widely and  deeply verified by a number and variety of doctoral dissertations as empirical research studies carried out under the guidance of Dr Ansoff and his successors at the former United States International University and the present Alliant International University in San Diego. Secondly, a better part of the constituent elements of his conceptual framework has been well observed in the actual business world, as well as its corporate environment, partly through the benchmarkings of distinguished firms (and this irrespective of their nationality, size or the nature of the business) and partly by readers’ experiences. 3. A multi disciplinary approach. Dr Ansoff’s background has also allowed him to develop a multi-disciplinary approach with a wide spectrum ranging from the natural sciences to social science in general and from philosophy, logic, mathematics, physics, psychology, economics, and complexity to business management in particular.

 

5 IGOR ANSOFF AS HUMANIST AS WELL AS SCIENTIST
In connection with the publication in 1980 of the Japanese version of Strategic Management, I played a role of moderator for the ‘1981 Ansoff Strategic Management Seminars for Japanese 
Top Managers’ in Japan, sponsored jointly by three organizations. The following is from our first conversation, prior to the start of the first seminar:
I.A.: ‘Oh, you are Professor Gen-Ichi Nakamura. Gen-Ichi, how come you’re so smart in translating this kind of a difficult book, the contents of which even the original author does not understand?’
G.N.: ‘Thank you, Igor. It is presumably because I am more stupid than you are.’ Enjoying our first joke, we felt that we had touched each other’s 
heartstrings. Thus, Igor’s and my friendship started on a firstname basis from the very beginning.

This example, drawn from many during the two decades ofthe 1980s and 1990s, may be sufficient to show that Igor was as much a humanist/humorist as he was a great scientist. He was ‘the man’.

6 MY RECOMMENDATION TO READERS

Strategic Management, as the highest of the Ansoff Mountains, soaring to the sky and looking down on the other six, may appear to be difficult and tiresome for readers to climb at the outset. After some trial, however, I am sure that they will find their efforts most enjoyable, enriching and rewarding.

 

CONTENTS

List of Figures........................................................................................................ viii
Foreword by Gen-Ichi Nakamura.......................................................................... x
Special Memorial Article: H. Igor Ansoff and Strategic
Management – Reflections from the Philosopher’s Stone
(Rick Ansoff)............................................................................................................ 1
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 9
State of Knowledge ................................................................................................ ...9
Scope of this Book.....................................................................................................10
Antecedents ................................................................................................ ..............13
2. THE OVERALL FRAMEWORK.........................................................................16
Environment-Serving Organizations..........................................................................16
The Work of ESOs................................................................................................ ....19
Multiple Power Centers..............................................................................................23
Overview of the Model...............................................................................................25
3. THE ENVIRONMENT IN A HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE ................................................................................................ ........29
The Industrial Revolution...........................................................................................29
The Mass-Production Era...........................................................................................30
The Mass-Marketing Era............................................................................................31
Transition to the Post-Industrial Era...........................................................................33
Environment of the Non-Profits................................................................................ 37
Major Trends................................................................................................ .............39
4. MODEL OF BUDGETING BEHAVIOR...............................................................44
Strategic Intensity................................................................................................ .......44
Environmental Dependence.........................................................................................47
Critical Mass................................................................................................ ...............50
Budget Mix ................................................................................................ ,...............52
5. MODEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TURBULENCE 55
Predictability................................................................................................ ................55
Novelty of Change................................................................................................ .......59
Escalation of Turbulence..............................................................................................62
Evolution of Organizational Intelligence.....................................................................65

Scale of Turbulence ................................................................................................ ....66
Strategic Thrust ................................................................................................ ..........72
Effect of the Rules of the Game.................................................................................. 76
6. STRATEGIC CAPABILITY................................................................................... 80
Openness of Behavior................................................................................................ ..80
Managerial Capability ................................................................................................ .84
General Management Competence ...............................................................................85
Logistic Competence.................................................................................................... 92
Strategic Capacity................................................................................................ ........ 94
Dynamics of Strategic Capability..................................................................................97
Model of Strategic Performance Potential ...................................................................100
7. POWER ................................................................................................ ..................105
Evolution of Power Structure ......................................................................................105
Model of Power Dynamics ..........................................................................................107
8. ASPIRATIONS AND CULTURE............................................................................115
Aspiration Behavior ................................................................................................ ....115
Evolution and Institutionalization of Performance
Aspirations................................................................................................ ...................121
Culture and Behavior Aspirations................................................................................126
9. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP.................................................................................. 133
Patterns of Strategic Leadership.................................................................................. 133
Legitimizing Leadership...............................................................................................139
Decision Leadership................................................................................................ .....142
Action Leadership ................................................................................................ .......147
Behavior of Strategic Managers.................................................................................. 148
Perception of the Environment.....................................................................................152
Communication of Expectations..................................................................................156
10. MODEL OF STRATEGIC CHOICE ....................................................................159
Action Potential and Influence Potential.....................................................................159
Model of Performance Expectations ...........................................................................162
Model of Performance Aspirations .............................................................................170
Choice of Strategic Thrust ...........................................................................................177
11. TRANSITION BEHAVIOR................................................................................... 183
Lag Response to Environmental Change..................................................................... 183
Lead Response to Change............................................................................................ 190
Strategic Surprise..........................................................................................................194
Social Inertia ............................................................................................................... 196
Strategic Drift......................................................................................................... ......201

12. MODEL OF TRANSITION BEHAVIOR 204
Modes of Transition................................................................................................ .....204
Transition Triggers........................................................................................................207
Patterns of Transition................................................................................................ ...210
Summary Model of Transition Behavior..................................................................... 216
13. THE BASIC AXIOMS.......................................................................................... 224
Epistemology of Complexity .......................................................................................224
Key Axioms................................................................................................................. 231
References................................................................................................................... 234
Index............................................................................................................................ 242

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